The Use of Evsys for Preparing a Human Rights Database for Presentation to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) in South Africa

The Use of Evsys for Preparing a Human Rights Database for Presentation to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) in South Africa

Levin, L., Dewhirst, P. & Hamber, B. (1997). The Use of Evsys for Preparing a Human Rights Database for Presentation to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) in South Africa. Paper presented at the HURIDOCS Conference, Mexico City, 11-13 November.

 

by Lydia Levin, Polly Dewhirst & Brandon Hamber

Paper presented at the HURIDOCS Conference, Mexico City, 11-13 November 1997.

Lydia Levin is an independent consultant.

Polly Dewhirst is a Project Manager in the Transition and Reconciliation Programme at the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.

Brandon Hamber is an independent consultant.

Introduction

The South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was brought into being by the Promotion of National Unity and Reconciliation Act of 1995. This act was the result of the Minister of Justice and others' will to deal with past injustices under apartheid and extensive negotiations across political parties in order to find an acceptable means for putting this into practice. The act also put into effect the constitutional provision to grant amnesty to perpetrators of human rights violations who had acted with political motive.

The mandate of the TRC covered gross human rights abuses from 1 March 1960 – 10 May 1994, including the following: "killing, attempted killing, abduction/disappearances, and torture or severe ill-treatment". The TRC was charged with dealing with these abuses, amnesty for perpetrators and proposals for a reparations policy for victims. To this end, the TRC would take statements and hold hearings for victims. It would also receive amnesty applications and hear amnesty applicants either in public or private. Citizens would also be heard by the TRC at special hearings, such as those into the conduct of judges, or the hearing on the media's role in promoting apartheid.

A range of organisations had worked on human rights abuses under apartheid, particularly through the 1980s, when detention without trial, assassinations, torture and disappearances were daily occurrences for the oppressed in South Africa.

These organisations held a wealth of information in their files, which had been gained from the statements and affidavits of victims and their families, from court records, newspapers and reports. The advent of the TRC provided an opportunity for the organisations to provide their material to the TRC so that it could gain an accurate picture of human rights abuses.

This paper describes the project which was set up for this purpose. The use of EVSYS for the project is outlined in detail and evaluative comments on the project as a whole are provided.

Background to the Project

The Human Rights Documentation Project, known as the "HRDP" began in early 1995 after a group of NGOs were requested by Dr. Alex Boraine, Director of Justice in Transition, to begin a process of documenting potential cases of human rights abuses which could be used by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC). A national coalition of twelve NGOs soon developed and began work on the project, with a co-ordinating body being chosen in each region.1

At the outset, the participants in the HRDP were clear that the information would be used for the TRC. It was not clear as to whether the database would be given to the TRC, whether it would be used by NGOs to monitor TRC work, whether the TRC would outsource research to the HRDP or whether there would be any other way of working together.2

While the HRDP had co-ordinating bodies throughout the country, it began in and was managed from Johannesburg by the Working Group of representatives from the member human rights NGOs.3 The group met weekly to conceptualise, formulate and refine the database.

Aim of the Database

Although our aims were closely tied to the TRC's mandate, it had not yet been set up, legislation had not yet been finalised and the scope of certain terms, such as "severe ill-treatment" had not yet been defined. We therefore worked in an undefined space prior to the setting up of the TRC, although setting up a database with a specific purpose.

Given that the NGOs collaborating on the project had extensive records of human rights cases, they wished these to be represented in the work of, and used by the TRC in obtaining the full picture of human rights abuses in South Africa (this was to be the TRC's mandate). These records could also provide the TRC with much information4 and evidence for purposes of investigation and corroboration in the course of its work with victims, witnesses or perpetrators who made statements.

The aim of the database was therefore to assist the work of the TRC by enabling it to corroborate evidence, or gain access to further information in order to locate particular victims or perpetrators linked with events or regions, or to provide contextual evidence for a certain event or time period.

Setting up the Database

The HRDP Working Group conceptualised a database to deal with the existing records, rather than attempt to collect new information.5 The group focused largely on public records in a variety of forms (i.e. advice office and paralegal statements, newspaper clippings, monitoring reports) compiled by human rights organisations.

The conceptualisation process of the HRDP database was shaped by two opposing factors:

  • Firstly, trying to create a comprehensive database that would create a vivid and detailed picture of the past, and

  • Secondly, trying to process as much material as possible in the short period of time before the TRC began its work.

The HRDP members generally had backgrounds as human rights workers and not as database specialists. We did not fully realise that once we chose a database, this implied using a specific model for recording human rights violations. We were further unaccustomed to the South African struggle being represented by a model. The HURIDOCS standard formats, as represented by EVSYS, was considered close enough to the way human rights had been recorded by NGOs in South Africa and allowed us flexibility to change some aspects. Our approach was therefore to start with the software and modify it to suit our needs.

EVSYS had been brought to the attention of the HRDP as a programme that had been designed by human rights workers for the purpose of recording of human rights violations and had previously been tested and proven in other situations. It was an adaptable programme with fields that could be changed, deleted, added or left blank. Further, index terms could be changed and new ones added.

Given our need to find a database that struck the balance between our two opposing ideals, EVSYS Version 3 was chosen.

Fundamental Changes to EVSYS

Many changes were made to EVSYS, including restructuring formats, fields and coded vocabulary. Some of these changes were fundamental and later affected the efficiency of the database. Others were merely cosmetic in order to make the database more user friendly.

Only Event, Perpetrator and Victim Formats Utilised

The first fundamental change was the decision not to utilise the Intervention and Source formats.

Although seen as important, Intervention was considered a lower priority than the other formats and less important to the work of the TRC. Furthermore, having preliminarily perused the records to be processed, the Working Group knew that only limited information on interventions existed. Thus in the interest of time, the intervention format was omitted. Documentation of interventions was not lost completely however as it was incorporated into the event format within the two newly created fields called "Legal Action by Victim/Kin" and "Legal Action by State." These two fields allowed for a brief summary of legal action thus providing a general background of interventions to give more context to events.

Likewise the Source format was not used and the information was incorporated into the Victim, Perpetrator and Event formats in the form of three new fields called "Organisational Source", "File Number" and "Supporting Documents." In assessing the material that would be processed and inputted, the Working Group saw that much of the material had not yet been archived systematically and would have to be organised and assigned temporary archival reference numbers by the HRDP data processors.

A "Source" was defined as a particular document, file or even portion of a file. Given this broad definition of "Source" and the great number of documents it would include, it was seen as impractical for data processors to spend much time filling out a Source formats. Thus the HRDP Working Group created three fields that would be contained in the formats that were to be used.

The field "Organisational Source" replaced "Name of Source" and "Address of Source", capturing the name and exact address of the organisation where the information could be found. The field "Supporting Documents" replaced "Type of Source Material" by describing exactly what was contained in the source (i.e. news clippings, photos, affidavits, etc.)

Finally the field "File Number" captured the unique number assigned to the document either by the HRDP Data Processor or a previous organisation.

Changed the Name and Function of Fields/Created new EVSYS fields

The Working Group endeavoured to make the event, victim and alleged perpetrator information formats shorter. It was the Group's intention to modify these formats to capture information relevant only to their TRC focus. In short we wished to create a Special Purpose Short Format. After much debate however, we found it extremely difficult to eliminate many of the original EVSYS fields. Not only did we not eliminate many of the existing fields, we also added several new ones. The victim, perpetrator and event formats thus became Special Purpose Long Formats.6

Restructured Field Order in Formats

This restructuring of EVSYS was done purely in the interest of making the programme more user friendly. It primarily involved grouping related fields together. For instance in the event format, fields containing basic geographical and descriptive information were grouped together at the beginning. More analytical/statistical fields such as "Type of Perpetrator" and "Number of Victims" were grouped in the middle of the format. Housekeeping fields such as those containing source information, date of entry and name of the processor were placed at the end.

Changed Number of Terms to be Chosen in Fields

Due to the nature of some of the new and revised fields the number of coded terms to be chosen in these fields had to be expanded or reduced. For example, there had to be the option to choose all four types of human rights violations in the "Truth Commission Definition" field while only one choice could be allowed in the field of "Consent." Thus the programme was configured to allow this.

Database Management

EVSYS was used in four sites around the country simultaneously, while the data was collated and the database managed centrally in Johannesburg. This approach was taken because there were records located in human rights organisations all over the country. Any modifications were made centrally and then distributed to the other sites. Using EVSYS in a distributed fashion was a fundamental shift from the way in which it had been set up or intended for use. EVSYS was found to be able to offer little assistance in the complex task of database management that arose due to the particular use of the database.

There was a range of skills within the Group, however the person who did the modification of the programme and database management had limited technical knowledge and no programming experience. The programme was simple enough for her to be able to make the necessary modifications. However, we consider that if we were to attempt to perform complex functions or report creation, the modifications could cause problems. There are currently some problems with printing which appear to be caused by the modifications.

The data collation and management was a difficult process and was largely done manually. Every three months the regional offices sent data on disc to Johannesburg. The collator then took a month to go through all the records to check for duplicates, potential duplicates, spelling mistakes etc. As each region worked independently there was great opportunity for duplication, particularly given the time lag. Decisions would have to be made as to what was actually duplicated, which versions were the most complete and which records could be eliminated. Thereafter, the information could be incorporated into a super-file and be loaded onto the database.

As can be seen from the above, there was a lot of opportunity for wasted effort in the regions, through the entry, and later sorting of duplicate entries. In the three month period of entry, each region did not have access to the records of the other regions, the time period compounding the possibility of duplication. Each region would not be able to update existing records, but in their isolation would create entirely new records for an event recorded by another region.

There could have been alternative ways of working which were not explored, such as circulating victim lists weekly to all regions; use of e-mail to communicate; increased communication and meetings between regions and ongoing training. Failure to use these methods was possibly due to the pressurised nature of the project, the lack of full-time staff and the lack of experience in information management on such a large scale.

Changes to Controlled Vocabulary

The process of amending the EVSYS controlled vocabulary ran parallel to the overall database development. Preliminary amendments were made according to suggestions from the Working Group. Further amendments were then made during the project's three month trial period, in response to requests and criticisms made by HRDP data entry staff at the four sites.

Changes were made to the controlled vocabulary in the fields:

  • Type of Event
  • Occupation
  • Type of Victim
  • Type of Perpetrator
  • Geographical Code
  • Language(s) Spoken

In addition, controlled vocabulary lists were created for the new fields:

  • TRC Definition
  • Province or Homeland
  • Consent
  • Affiliation
Type of Event

The controlled vocabulary in this field was fundamentally changed from the outset. The Working Group used the HURIDOCS list of acts of violence as a starting point in compiling their list. As the database was conceptualised as an aid to the work of the TRC, the Working Group aimed to create a new vocabulary of acts of violence according to definitions in the enabling legislation7 which divides violations into four broad categories:

  • Killings
  • Attempted killings
  • Disappearances/kidnapping
  • Torture/severe ill-treatment

These four categories were made into headings and coded "K", "A", "D" and "T". Under these main headings were lists of more detailed descriptions of acts so each act of violence could be given more detailed coded description (e.g. Torture: Electric Shocks, Slapping). The acts removed from the HURIDOCS list included those that did not fit any of the TRC definitions (i.e. failure to prosecute improper working conditions, discrimination, etc.) and those torture methods that were unique to South and Central America.

When entering data, the heading codes were to be assigned plus a more detailed description selected from the controlled vocabulary.

Descriptions even once amended were rather complex and often involved more than one component e.g. Attempted Killing in Armed Conflict Between Government and Opposition. The HRDP would recommend that in order to simplify event descriptions, they be further divided into fields, such as Action and Consequence. In this way the action could be described separately from its consequence e.g. Action=Shooting and Consequence=Death.

Occupation

The Working Group nearly eliminated this field because occupation was not seen as essential to understanding gross human rights violations in South Africa. After much debate the field was retained; but as a compromise its controlled vocabulary was reduced.

Type of Victim/Type of Perpetrator

These two lists of controlled vocabulary were amended simultaneously and narrowed to include only such vocabulary that was relevant to understanding human rights violations in the South African context. Thus such codes as "indigenous people", "homosexuals" and "disabled people" were discarded while codes such as "township resident", "hostel dweller" and "Black Local Authority official" were added. Particularly important to the HRDP was the documentation of the role of the state and its employees in apartheid violence. Thus many detailed codes such as "Kitskonstabel", "Internal Stability Unit" and "South African Defence Force" were added.

It would be incorrect to assume that no members of state agencies were victims, or that people were not victims in one incident and perpetrator in another. The HRDP would therefore recommend that the controlled vocabulary lists describing victims and perpetrators be combined in order to standardise, create clarity and to eliminate bias.

Consent

The controlled vocabulary for this field was very straightforward. It was designed to accommodate all responses from a victim who was deciding whether or not to give consent to let their files go before the TRC or be made public.

Province or Homeland

Creating the controlled vocabulary for this field was very straightforward. As the TRC had the years 1960-1993 as its focus, the Working Group decided to utilise the historical geographical names for the four provinces, independent bantustans and self-governing territories.8

Truth and Reconciliation Commission Definition

The four codes for this controlled vocabulary list were taken directly from the enabling legislation. "Severe ill-treatment" was categorised with "torture" as the former could not be defined until the TRC began its work.

Affiliation

The Working Group decided to code this field in an attempt to gain more of an understanding of the political nature of human rights violations. The codes were left broad, incorporating only the main political and trade union organisations. In addition broad categories such as "Youth Organisation (not listed)" and "Civic Organisation (not listed)" were added. Later these broad categories became the most popular choice as most of the victims and perpetrators were linked to small, local organisations.

Geographical Term

Minor changes were administered to this vocabulary list so that South Africa became the default term at the top of the list.

Languages Spoken

This list was changed slightly in order to make data entry speedier and easier. It was reduced to only the eleven official languages of South Africa, several languages spoken in neighbouring states and several other European languages believed to be spoken in the context of human rights violations.

As with the changes to fields in other areas of the database, vocabulary changes probably had a negative impact on some functions of the database.

Training

The training programme was developed as the changes to the EVSYS programme were made. Initially a three-hour training workshop was formulated and piloted with members of the Working Group in Johannesburg who had worked on conceptualising and developing the database. It became clear from the pilot session that the training needed to be expanded to a full-day session to accommodate the fact that the majority of the HRDP staff had little computer experience, much less data processing or entry experience.

The full-day session was to run in three parts:

  • An introduction to the Human Rights Documentation Project
  • An extensive orientation of the structure, formats and fields of the database
  • A sample session where trainees were asked to process and enter sample documents into the system

A group of three trainers from Johannesburg ran this training workshop in the four HRDP sites around the country. A training manual was developed which staff could refer to if they had any problems. In addition the F1 Help keys were edited so that they could also serve as a guide to what information was required in different fields.

After the initial training programme was completed, the trainers made a final edit to the training manual. They then revisited the four work sites around the country with the revised training manual and conducted one-day follow-up sessions in which the staff's work was evaluated and any problems were addressed and corrected.

In evaluating the training, it was found that the initial training sessions had been thorough and provided HRDP staff with a comprehensive introduction to the EVSYS database. It was also important to have more than one trainer as most of the HRDP staff needed very individualised attention during the initial sessions. One day, however, was not long enough to provide a firm base for honing processing and capturing skills.

HRDP staff were urged to use the manual and to phone the trainers if they needed further guidance. Although the staff did indeed call many times, it was clear that guidance given over the phone was not as effective as on-site support. The follow-up training workshops were found to be useful but also not entirely adequate. Being only one-day sessions, they did not provide enough time for the trainers to spot and correct all of the mistakes being made by the staff. Furthermore, the fact that they occurred up to two months after the initial workshops meant that a larger amount of poorly entered data had to be corrected.

In retrospect it would have been more effective for the trainer (or trainers) to initially run a three-day or even week-long workshop so as to provide time for the trainers to monitor the staff's work before bad habits became entrenched.

Evaluation

When evaluating the HRDP, we need to look at two areas: first the information content that can be used to assist the TRC, and secondly the EVSYS programme. For our purposes, the HURIDOCS Standard Formats were never viewed as separate from EVSYS programme, as we only ever considered EVSYS to be our tool.

The Project recorded the names of 4 187 victims, 1 177 perpetrators and 3 152 events. This was a considerable achievement, given the time, logistical, financial and staffing constraints. While it did not reflect all the human rights work done in apartheid South Africa, it included a broad spectrum of cases recorded in main centres around the country. As the TRC aimed to gain as comprehensive picture as possible of human rights abuses, the databases was well placed to assist them.

While the TRC needed a broad picture, it also needed specific information on individual cases of human rights abuses. The database contains both high and low profile cases, due to the many sources from which information was taken. Many of the cases recorded were of low and medium profile cases, as no priority was given to particularly cases when they were recorded. This would provide the TRC with information on cases where there may be no other sources of information for corroboration or background. Information could be accessed either through victim, perpetrator or event, and where recorded, summaries would be available. The programme would also provide links between perpetrators and other events or victims.

The TRC is charged with investigating cases and the types of reports that EVSYS can generate could be of assistance. For example, all the events to which one perpetrator is linked can be accessed, and a perpetrator profile obtained. When a perpetrator is applying for amnesty, in which he/she needs to make full disclosure of his/her deeds, the database can provide a history as given by the victims of the perpetrator, and check it against the application.

A further area in which the database can provide information to the TRC is by obtaining reports on particular regions, towns or townships in South Africa to obtain a perspective on events there. This could be limited by time period in order to ascertain the veracity of victim's or perpetrator's accounts of events. The database was used for example in the first set of hearings in the Eastern Cape to produce events, names and addresses of victims and witnesses in the region, who could testify before the TRC.

The HRDP considered data integrity to be a problem. Although training was given to all staff processing data, errors crept in to several areas, such as assigning key words. Data entry conventions were not always followed, and there was insufficient monitoring of data received and feedback to the staff in the regions.

The HRDP did not specifically address the issue of statistical analysis of the data. The primary aim was to record as many available cases as possible from the many sources who had worked on human rights issues. Although the project was spread throughout the country, the project did not provide a spread of all areas in the country, all types of cases, all types of victims or perpetrators. It is therefore recommended that the database be used with caution for statistical purposes, as the data is inevitably skewed by the sources used. The Detainees' Parents Support Committee for example, had extensive records and provided much information on detention and torture, which could possibly skew the information on torture relative to other violations such as murder.

Security used on the HRDP system was not of a very high standard. The HRDP was aware of this as an issue and password protection was put on the computers on which the databases were located on all sites. Some regions used passwords, although all users would use one password. Further than this, there was no restriction on access to the database and EVSYS does not provide protection. A further security issue was that the system does not have security tracking to show who has entered data or made changes. Fortunately no known breaches of security were experienced.

The HRDP added a field to the Victim information: "Has consent been given to release name to the TRC?". This was to provide a measure of confidentiality and protection to the people whose information was to be included in the database. Only 50 of the victims recorded on the database, comprising less than one percent gave such consent to the HRDP. Most of the data subjects were unaware of the database, the work of the HRDP, and the intention to hand over information to the TRC. The HRDP did not have field workers and it was impossible to pursue victims to obtain their consent.

For the data taken from public records such as newspapers, confidentiality and consent were not a problem. However for those records taken from cases of individual victims who approached legal and human rights advice offices, their information was confidential and their consent would have to be obtained. This matter was left to the TRC to deal with when the database was handed over to them.

Having used EVSYS, particularly in ways for which it was not intended, we realised the limitations of the model and found that they inhibited our work in preparing records for presentation to the TRC.

One of the major problems relates to the relationship between multiple perpetrators and/or multiple victims to each other and not simply to the event. When this occurs, it is not possible to distinguish which perpetrator did what abuse to which victim. For the purposes of the TRC, they would want to know which perpetrator was responsible for which act or event of violence, particularly when they applied for amnesty. It may be found, for example, through the data, that one officer systematically practised a certain form of torture. If his/her acts were not attributed to an individual when entering data, this information could not later be retrieved.

A further problem arose in having separate victim and perpetrator tables. This is a particular issue in the South African struggle, where people were both victims and perpetrators at different times. A policeman in an East Rand township would be a perpetrator in his work, but may suffer as a victim when his house was burned down by members of the community whom he had victimised. EVSYS did not immediately provide for this dual role, or a capacity to trace a person's history as both, which is an element that the HRDP recommends be considered by HURIDOCS.

Due to the fundamental changes made to EVSYS, we lost functionality. We became limited to searches in a small range of coded fields, such as "Type of event", "Location", "Keywords" and "Province." The search could be browsed, but not printed out. We were unable to solve this problem.

Looking back on the process which the HRDP engaged in, database management was one of the key problems. It was not simply that the EVSYS software was created for smaller systems. We were not aware at the start that in spite of having software, we would have an enormous amount of work in managing the information. The EVSYS model is not one that emphasises management and we did not know that this was to be our major task during the course of the project. For example, we did not initially separate the tasks of data processing from data capturing. Although this occurred organically as tasks became assigned in the four sites, it would have been more efficient if we had started out knowing the enormity of this side of the project, and planned accordingly. Management was concocted rather than planned, which could have been avoided. We would therefore propose to HURIDOCS that database management be addressed with a view to incorporating it into any processes where EVSYS is used, and into training.

Once we had handed the HRDP database over to the TRC, they imported it into their database, created by Oracle, where it could be viewed through Sequel Views, and became more functional for use in their environment.

EVSYS software has the advantage of being Dos-based, written in dBase 3 and therefore being suitable for use on low-end PCS. However, this does create a certain amount of awkwardness in navigating the database to retrieve information, compared to some of the software currently available on the market. For example, you can choose a Victim and then go to a related Perpetrator. From the Perpetrator you cannot then proceed to a related Event, but must go back through the Victim in order to get to the Event.

In the South African context, many organisations are using, or are upgrading to, Windows 3.1 or 95. They therefore have the capacity to use more sophisticated software, and there is widespread support for such applications. A Microsoft-compatible programme such as MSAccess is widely used and well-known, and may be preferable for future databases.

The work on the HRDP database and EVSYS had an unexpected positive spin off in terms of capacity building, which ultimately proved of assistance to the TRC. As has been pointed out above, most of the participants had little or no knowledge of how to set up a database, what the conceptual issues were, how to alter programmes or how to set up an information management system. The lengthy working process, the constant meetings to discuss issues and trouble shoot taught participants a great deal. When the TRC was being set up, some of the participants acted as consultants in the setting up of the TRC database, and later went to work at the TRC. The person responsible for the database management and changes to EVSYS was seconded to the TRC for several months.

Conclusion

During the course of the HRDP, EVSYS was taken beyond its capacity, and, in some respects was unable to perform to meet our needs and those of the TRC. For the situation in which 30 years of human rights violations throughout a country were being gathered from pre-existing records, a larger, more customised application would probably have been more appropriate. It was realised that the programme is more effective for small-scale work by individual human rights groups.

However, the HURIDOCS Standard Formats and EVSYS database were a tried and tested method that enabled the HRDP to undertake a project that may otherwise have been impossible. The work done by the HURIDOCS Task Force and the EVSYS developers provided the backbone for the project, which the HRDP could then adapt to handle the specificity of human rights abuses in South Africa, and to fulfil our plan to provide information to the yet-to-be-set-up TRC. The model used by HURIDOCS generally provided an appropriate framework for the way human rights abuses had been recorded by South African NGOs and where it did not appear to fit, it could be adapted. Using the work that had been done by the human rights groups within HURIDOCS, the HRDP was thus enabled to give the TRC a database containing a substantial number and range of victims, perpetrators and events.

Notes:

1 The organisations which coordinated in each region were: The Independent Medico-Legal Unit in KwaZulu-Natal, The Mayibuye Centre in Cape Town, The Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation in Johannesburg and Human Rights Committee/Legal Resources Centre in Port Elizabeth.

2 The database was ultimately given to the TRC as a source of information and a corroborative and investigative tool. At the inception of the TRC, some of the organisations which had been involved ceased to exist or changed their focus. Some of the individuals went to work for the TRC.

3 The Johannesburg group of the HRDP included the following organisations:

    • The Centre for Applied Legal Studies (CALS)

 

  • IDASA
  • SANGONeT
  • Independent Board of Inquiry (IBIIR)
  • Human Rights Committee (HRC)
  • Peace Action
  • Lawyers for Human Rights (LHR)
  • South African History Archives (SAHA)
  • Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR)
  • Human Rights Institute of South Africa (HURISA)

4 The HRDP's records included, for example, contact details for some victims and witnesses.

5 A network of field workers to collect information in a second stage was considered, but was never implemented.

6 A list of the technical changes made to these fields can be found in Appendix 1. Detailed descriptions of the changes made to these new and old fields can be found in the "Full Descriptions of Field Contents" portions of the training manual.

7 The Promotion of National Unity and Reconciliation Act 1995

8 These names have changed since the passing of the Interim Constitution in 1994.

Sources

  • Hamber, Brandon
    The Burdens of Truth: an Evaluation of the Psychological Support Services and initiatives Undertaken by the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, Johannesburg
    1997.

  • Dewhirst, Polly, Hamber, Brandon & van Zyl, Paul
    Human Rights Documentation Project: Final Report Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation
    December 1995.

  • Changes to Controlled Vocabulary.
    Centre for Study of Violence and Reconciliation
    1996.

  • Changes Made to EVSYS Programme
    Centre for Study of Violence and Reconciliation
    1996.

  • Human Rights Documentation Project
    Training Manual: For Presentation to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission South Africa
    1995.

  • Dlamini, Moses
    Use of EVSYS for the establishment of a database with Truth Commission documents (sic).

  • NGO Coalition Press Statement to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission
    Issued by the Project on Truth and Reconciliation at the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation
    27 March 1996.

APPENDIX 1
Technical Changes Made to EVSYS Programme

EVENTS

  • Record Number (Character, 7, coded) became Record Number (Character, 7, coded)
  • Geographical Code (Character , 4, coded) became Event Description (Character, 500, NOT coded)
  • Geographical Term (Character, 16, coded) became Geographical Term (Character, 40, coded) Type of Event (character, 40, coded) became Province or Homeland (Character, 35, coded)
  • Initial Date (character, 14, coded) became City or Township (Character, 150, NOT coded)
  • Final Date (Character, 14, coded) became Exact Location (Character, 150, not coded)
  • Type of Location (Character, 16, coded) became Type of Event (Character, 80, coded)
  • Local Region (Character, 6, coded) became Blank Field (Character, 1)
  • Exact Location (Character, 35, not coded) became Initial Date (Character, 6, not coded)
  • Event Description (Memo, 250, not coded) became Final Date (Character,6,not coded)
  • Role of Authorities (Memo, 80, not coded) became Role of Authorities (Character, 350, not coded)
  • Charges/Stated Reason (Memo,80,not coded) became Number of Victims (Character, 250, not coded)
  • Type of Perpetrator (Character, 24, coded) became Type of Victim (Character, 80, coded)
  • Number of Victims (Character, 40, coded) became Blank Field (Character, 1 )
  • Type of Victim (Character, 40, coded) became Type of Perpetrator (Character, 40, coded)
  • Witnesses (Character, 40, not coded) became Event Known As (Character, 100, not coded)
  • Remarks (Memo, 80, not coded) became Contacts & Witnesses (Character, 500, not coded)
  • Supporting Documents (Character, 20, not coded) became Legal Action by Kin (Character, 300, not coded)
  • Date of Entry (Character, 8, coded) became Date of Entry (Character, 8, coded)
  • Date Received (Character, 8, coded) became Legal Action by State (Character, 300, NOT coded)
  • Notes ( Memo, 80, not coded) became Prepared By (Character, 100, not coded)
  • Prepared By (Character, 2, not coded) became Organisational Source (Character, 250, not coded)
  • Index (Character, 40, coded) became Reason for Victimisation (Character,500,not coded)
  • Confidentiality (Character, 1, not coded) became File Number (Character, 150, not coded)
  • Project Title (Character, 10, not coded) became Supporting Documents (Character, 250, not coded)
  • Relevant National Legislation (Character, 50, not coded) became Notes (Character, 500, not coded)
  • Relevant International Legislation (Character, 16, coded) became Blank Field (Character, 1)
  • Files (Character, 10, not coded) became Date of Entry (Character, 6, not coded)
  • Contacts (Character, 35, not coded) became Blank Field (Character, 1)
  • Count (Character, 1, not coded) became Blank Field ( Character, 1)
  • Event Status (Character, 2, coded) became Blank Field (Character, 1)
Victims

 

  • Record Number (Character, 7, coded) became Record Number (Character, 7, coded)
  • Name (Character, N/A, not coded) became Name (Character, 200, not coded)
  • Age (Character, N/A, not coded) became Gender (Character, 1 not coded)
  • Date of Birth (Character, 8, not coded) became Date of Birth (Character, 6, not coded)
  • Place of Birth (Character, N/A, not coded) became Testify (Character, 75, not coded)
  • Gender (Character, 2, coded) became Affiliation (Character, 32, coded)
  • Religion (Character, N/A, coded) became Occupation ( Character, 24, coded)
  • Identification documents (Character, N/A, not coded) became Current Status (Character, 250, not coded)
  • Origins (Character, N/A, coded) became Language(s) Spoken (Character, 40, coded)
  • Marital Status (Character, N/A, coded) became Consent (Character, 8, coded)
  • Number of Dependants (Character, N/A, coded) became Notes ( Character, 500, not coded)
  • Name of Spouse (Character, N/A, not coded) became I.D. Documents (Character, 250, not coded)
  • Health (Character, N/A, not coded) became Reparations (Character, 250, not coded)
  • Background (Character, N/A, not coded) became Supporting Documents (Character, 250, not coded)
  • Occupation (Character, N/A, coded) became Blank Field (Character, 1 )
  • Affiliation (Character, N/A, coded) became Blank Field (Character, 1)
  • Status (Character, N/A, not coded) became Blank Field (Character, 1)
  • Remarks (Character, N/A, not coded) became Contacts & Witnesses (Character, 500, not coded)
  • Date of Entry (Character, 8 , coded) became Date of Entry (Character, 8, coded)
  • Notes (Character, 80, not coded) became Prepared By (Character, 100, not coded)
  • Count (Character, 1, not coded) became Blank Field (Character, 1)
  • Confidentiality (Character, 1, not coded) became File Number (Character, 150, not coded)
  • Prepared By (Character, 2, not coded) became Organisational Source (Character, 250, not coded)
  • Current Address (Character, N/A, not coded) became Current Address (Character, 250, not coded)
  • Secondary Address (Character, N/A, not coded) became Secondary Address (Character, 250, not coded)
  • Contacts (Character, N/A, not coded) became Blank Field (Character, 1)
  • Languages Spoken (Character, N/A, coded) became TRC Definition (Character, 32, coded)
  • A_VI_FIELD became Injuries/Trauma (Character, 250, not coded)

 

 

Perpetrators

  • Record Number (Character, 7, coded) became Record Number (Character, 7, coded)
  • Name (Character, N/A, not coded) became Name (Character, 200, not coded)
  • Age (Character, N/A, not coded) became Gender (Character, 1, not coded)
  • Gender (Character, 2, coded) became Affiliation (Character, 32, coded)
  • Language(s) Spoken (Character, N/A, coded) became TRC Definition (Character, 32, coded)
  • Religion (Character, N/A, coded) became Occupation (Character, 24, coded)
  • Origins (Character, N/A, coded) became Language(s) Spoken (Character, 40, coded)
  • Employment (Character, N/A, not coded) became Notes (Character, 350, not coded)
  • Affiliation (character, N/A, coded) became Blank Field (Character, 1)
  • Government Service (Character, N/A, not coded) became Supporting Documents (Character, 250, not coded)
  • Remarks (Character, N/A, not coded) became Contacts & Witnesses (Character, 500, not coded)
  • Prepared by (Character, 2, not coded) became Organisational Source (Character, 250, not coded)
  • Notes ( Memo, 80, not coded) became Prepared by (Character, 100, not coded)
  • Date of Entry (Character, 8, coded) became Date of Entry (Character, 8, coded)
  • A_PE_FIELD became File Number (Character, 150, not coded)
  • B_PE_FIELD became Legal Status (Character, 150, not coded)

APPENDIX 2
CONTROLLED VOCABULARY AFTER MODIFICATION

AFFILIATION

AAFL000 UNKNOWN

AAFL001 ACDP (AFRICAN CHRISTIAN DEMOCRAT PARTY)
AAFL002 AMP (AFRICAN MUSLIM PARTY)
AAFL003 ANC (AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS)
AAFL004 ANCWL (ANC WOMENS LEAGUE)
AAFL005 ANCYL (ANC YOUTH LEAGUE)
AAFL006 APLA (AZANIAN PEOPLES LIBERATION ARMY)
AAFL007 AVF (AFRIKAANER VOLKSFRONT)
AAFL008 AVU (AFRIKAANER VOLKSUNIE)
AAFL009 AWB (AFRIKAANER WEERSTANDBEWEGING)
AAFL010 AZAPO (AZANIAN PEOPLE'S ORGANISATION)
AAFL011 AZASCO (AZANIAN STUDENT CONGRESS)
AAFLO12 AZASM (AZANIAN STUDENT MOVEMENT)

BAFL012 BAWU (BLACK ALLIED WORKERS UNION)
BAFL013 BEMAWU
BAFL014 BCM (BLACK CONSCIOUSNESS MOVEMENT)
BAFL014 BLATU
BAFL015 BSB
BAFL016 BPC
BAFL016 BSP (BOERSTAAT PARTY)
BAFL017 BSS (BLACK STUDENTS SOCIETY)

CAFL018 COSAS (CONGRESS OF SOUTH AFRICAN STUDENTS)
CAFL019 COSATU (CONGRESS OF SOUTH AFRICAN TRADE UNIONS)
CAFL020 CP (CONSERVATIVE PARTY)

DAFL021 DP (DEMOCRATIC PARTY)

EAFL022 ECC (END CONSCRIPTION CAMPAIGN)

FAFL023 FAWU (FOOD AND ALLIED WORKERS UNION)
FAFL024 FF (FREEDOM FRONT)

HAFL025 HNP (HERITAGE NATIONAL PARTY)

IAFL026 IFP (INKATHA FREEDOM PARTY)
IAFL027 IYB (INKATHA YOUTH BRIGADE)

MAFL028 MEWUSA (METAL AND ELECTRICAL WORKERS UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA)
MAFL029 MK (UMKHONTO WE SIZWE)

NAFL030 NACTU (NATIONAL CONGRES OF TRADE UNIONS)
NAFL031 NAPUSA
NAFL032 NEHAWU (NATIONAL EDUCATION, HEALTH AND ALLIED WORKERS UNION)
NAFL033 NIC (NATIONAL INDIAN CONGRESS)
NAFL034 NP (NATIONAL PARTY)
lNAFL035 NUM (NATIONAL UNION OF MINEWORKERS)
NAFL036 NUMSA (NATIONAL UNION OF METAL WORKERS OF SOUTH AFRICA)
NAFL037 NUSAS (NATIONAL UNION OF SOUTH AFRICAN STUDENTS)

PAFL038 PAC (PAN AFRICAN CONGRESS)
PAFL039 PASO (PAN AFRICAN STUDENT ORGANISATION)
PAFL040 POPCRU (POLICE AND PRISONS CIVIL RIGHTS UNION)

SAFL041 SACP (SOUTH AFRICAN COMMUNIST PARTY)
SAFL042 SACTU (SOUTH AFRICAN CONGRESS OF TRADE UNIONS)
SAFL042 SANCO (SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL CIVIC ORGANISATION)
SAFL043 SANSCO (SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL STUDENT CONGRESS)
SAFL044 SAPHOR (SOUTH AFRICAN PRISONERS ORGANISATION FOR HUMAN RIGHTS)
SAFL045 SAPU (SOUTH AFRICAN PRESS UNION)
SAFL046 SASPU (SOUTH AFRICAN STUDENT PRESS UNION)
SAFL047 SASCO (SOUTH AFRICAN STUDENT CONGRESS)
SAFL049 SASO (SOUTH AFRICAN STUDENT ORGANIZATION)

TAFL048 TIC (TRANSVAAL INDIAN CONGRESS)

UAFL049 UDF (UNITED DEMOCRATIC FRONT)
UAFL050 UWUSA (UNITED WORKERS UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA)

XAFL051 CIVIC ORGANISATION (NOT LISTED)
XAFL052 UNION ORGANISATION (NOT LISTED)
XAFL053 YOUTH ORGANISATION (NOT LISTED)
XAFL054 WOMENS ORGANISATION (NOT LISTED)
XAFL055 RIGHT WING ORGANISATION (NOT LISTED)
XAFL056 POLITICAL ORGANISATION (NOT LISTED)
XAFL057 OTHER ORGANISATION (NOT LISTED)

CONSENT

CONS001 GIVEN

CONS002 DENIED

CONS003 NOT NECESSARY

CONS004 OTHER

CONS005 UNKNOWN

TYPE OF EVENT

Attempted Killing
AACTS01 ATTEMPTED KILLINGS
ATMT001 SHOOTING
ATMT002 BEATING, KICKING OR PUNCHING
ATMT003 FLOGGING, BLOWS WITH RIFLES, STICKS, WHIPS, STRAPS, ETC.
ATMT004 ATTACK WITH SHARP INSTRUMENT
ATMT005 MAIMING OR BREAKING BONES
ATMT006 STAGED ACCIDENTS
ATMT007 BURNS
ATMT008 ASPHYXIATION
ATMT009 BOMBING
ATMT010 NECKLACING
ATMT011 ATTEMPTED KILLING IN ARMED CONFLICT BETWEEN GOVERNMENT AND OPPOSITION
ATMT012 ATTEMPTED KILLING BY TORTURE
ATMT013 ATTEMPTED KILLING IN DEMONSTRATIONS, CROWD CONTROL
ATMT014 ATTEMPTED HIT SQUAD/HIT PERSON KILLING BY AUTHORITIES OR THOSE ACTING ON THEIR BEHALF
ATMT015 ATTEMPTED HIT SQUAD/HIT PERSON KILLING BY OPPOSITION GROUP
ATMT016 ATTEMPTED HIT SQUAD/HIT PERSON KILLING BY UNKNOWN
ATMT017 ATTEMPTED KILLING BY STAGED SUICIDE
ATMT018 ATTEMPTED KILLING BY NEGLIGENCE
ATMT019 ATTEMPTED KILLING BY DENIAL OF FOOD/ MEDICAL ATTENTION
ATMT020 ATTEMPTED KILLING IN A CONFLICT BETWEEN COMMUNITIES/ETHNIC GROUP
ATMT021 OTHER ATTEMPTED KILLING (NOT LISTED)

Disappearances & Kidnapping
DACTS01 DISAPPEARANCES & KIDNAPPING
DDISS01 KIDNAPPING
DDISS02 DISAPPEARANCE

Killings
KACTS01 KILLINGS
KKILL01 KILLING IN ARMED CONFLICT BETWEEN GOVERNMENT AND
KKILL02 KILLING BY TORTURE
KKILL03 KILLING IN DEMONSTRATIONS, CROWD CONTROL
KKILL04 HIT SQUAD/HIT PERSON KILLING BY AUTHORITIES OR THOSE ACTING ON THEIR BEHALF
KKILL05 HIT SQUAD/HIT PERSON KILLING BY OPPOSITION GROUPS, GUERILLAS
KKILL06 HIT SQUAD/HIT PERSON KILLING BY UNKNOWN PERSONS/GROUPS
KKILL07 STAGED SUICIDE
KKILL08 KILLING BY NEGLIGENCE
KKILL09 DENIAL OF FOOD, MEDICAL ATTENTION, TREATMENT
KKILL10 KILLING IN A CONFLICT BETWEEN COMMUNITIES/ETHNIC GROUPS
KKILL11 CAPITAL PUNISHMENT
KKILL12 DEATH IN DETENTION OR POLICE CUSTODY
KILL13 DEATH IN A REAL OR SUPPOSED ACCIDENT
KKILL14 NECKLACING
KKILL15 SHOOTING
KKILL16 DEATH BY BEATING, KIICKING OR PUNCHING
KKILL17 DEATH BY FLOGGING, BLOWS WITH RIFLES, STICKS, WHIPS
KKILL18 DEATH BY ATTACK WITH SHARP INSTRUMENT
KKILL19 DEATH BY BURNS
KKILL20 DEATH BY ASPHYXIATION
KKILL21 DEATH BY BOMBING
KKILL22 DEATH DUE TO UNKNOWN CAUSES

Torture
TACTS01 TORTURE
TORT001 BEATING, KICKING OR PUNCHING
TORT002 FLOGGING, BLOWS WITH RIFLES, STICKS, WHIPS, SJAMBOKS, ETC
TORT003 ELECTRIC SHOCKS
TORT004 SUFFOCATION (E.G. BAG OVER HEAD)
TORT005 FORCED EXERCISE
TORT006 CHOKING
TORT007 BLINDFOLDED (OR WET TOWEL PUT OVER HEAD)
TORT008 ASPHYXIATION
TORT009 BOUND OR TIED UP
TORT010 NAKEDNESS
TORT011 EXPOSURE TO EXTREME HEAT OR COLD
TORT012 GENITAL CLAMPING
TORT013 SUSPENSION OF WEIGHTS FROM TESTICLES
TORT014 DEPRIVATION OF FOOD OR WATER
TORT015 DEPRIVATION OF SLEEP
TORT016 DEPRIVATION OF MEDICINE/MEDICAL CARE
TORT017 OVERCROWDING
TORT018 PLACED IN ISOLATION
TORT019 PLACED IN TOTAL DARKNESS
TORT020 VERBAL ABUSE
TORT021 DEATH THREATS
TORT022 THREATS (NOT DEATH THREATS)
TORT023 SIMULATED EXECUTION
TORT024 DEPRIVATION OF PERSONAL HYGIENE
TORT025 FORCED POSTURES
TORT026 SUSPENSION: HANGING BY ARMS, LEGS ETC
TORT027 LOUD NOISES, MUSIC, SHOUTING, SCREAMING
TORT028 POWERFUL LIGHTS
TORT029 USE OF DRUGS (PHYSICAL EFFECT)
TORT030 USE OF DRUGS (PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECT)
TORT031 ABUSE WITH EXCREMENT
TORT032 ATTACK WITH SHARP INSTRUMENT
TORT033 MAIMING OR BREAKING BONES
TORT034 CLAPPING ON EARS WITH BOTH HANDS
TORT035 BEATING ON SOLES OF THE FEET
TORT036 FORCED JUMPING OR BEING THROWN FROM HEIGHTS
TORT037 BURNS
TORT038 BOILING
TORT039 CIGARETTES
TORT040 CHEMICALS
TORT041 LIVE FIRE/BURNING STICKS
TORT042 SEXUAL MOLESTATION AND TOUCHING
TORT043 FORCED PERFORMANCE OF SEXUAL ACTS OTHER THAN RAPE
TORT044 RAPE BY SOMEONE OF OPPOSITE SEX
TORT045 RAPE BY SOMEONE OF SAME SEX
TORT046 INTRODUCTION OF OBJECTS INTO RECTUM/VAGINA

 

GEOGRAPHICAL TERM

GEO0000 SOUTH AFRICA
GEO1000 UNKNOWN
GEO2000 UNIVERSAL
GEO5000 AFRICA
GEO5010 CENTRAL AFRICA
GEO5015 BURUNDI
GEO5118 CAMEROON
GEO5120 CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC
GEO5121 CHAD
GEO5123 CONGO
GEO5126 EQUATORIAL GUINEA
GEO5128 GABON
GEO5150 RWANDA
GEO5153 SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE
GEO5165 ZAIRE
GEO5200 EAST AFRICA
GEO5224 DJIBOUTI
GEO5227 ETHIOPIA
GEO5234 KENYA
GEO5257 SOMALIA
GEO5259 SUDAN
GEO5263 UGANDA
GEO5264 TANZANIA, UNITED REPUBLIC OF
GEO5281 ERITREA
GEO5300 NORTH AFRICA
GEO5311 ALGERIA
GEO5325 EGYPT
GEO5337 LIBYAN ARAB JAMAHIRIYA
GEO5344 MOROCCO
GEO5362 TUNISIA
GEO5400 SOUTHERN AFRICA
GEO5412 ANGOLA
GEO5415 BOTSWANA
GEO5422 COMOROS
GEO5435 LESOTHO
GEO5438 MADAGASCAR
GEO5439 MALAWI
GEO5442 MAURITIUS
GEO5443 MAYOTTE
GEO5445 MOZAMBIQUE
GEO5446 NAMIBIA
GEO5449 REUNION
GEO5452 SAINT HELENA
GEO5455 SEYCHELLES
GEO5458 SOUTH AFRICA
GEO5465 SWAZILAND
GEO5466 ZAMBIA
GEO5467 ZIMBABWE
GEO5500 WEST AFRICA
GEO5514 BENIN
GEO5516 BURKINA FASO
GEO5519 CAPE VERDE
GEO5529 GAMBIA
GEO5530 GHANA
GEO5531 GUINEA
GEO5532 GUIGEONEA-BISSAU
GEO5533 COTE D'IVORIE
GEO5536 LIBERIA
GEO5540 MALI
GEO5541 MAURITANIA
GEO5547 NIGER
GEO5548 NIGERIA
GEO5551 WESTERN SAHARA
GEO5554 SENEGAL
GEO5556 SIERRA LEONE
GEO5561 TOGO
GEO6000 AMERICAS
GEO6100 CARIBBEAN
GEO6111 ANGUILLA
GEO6112 ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA
GEO6113 NETHERLANDS ANTILLES
GEO6114 ARUBA
GEO6115 BAHAMAS
GEO6116 BARBADOS
GEO6118 BERMUDA
GEO6122 VIRGIN ISLANDS (BRITISH)
GEO6123 CAYMAN ISLANDS
GEO6127 CUBA
GEO6128 DOMINICA
GEO6129 DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
GEO6134 GRENADA
GEO6135 GUADELOUPE
GEO6138 HAITI
GEO6140 JAMAICA
GEO6142 MARTINIQUE
GEO6144 MONSERRAT
GEO6149 PUERTO RICO
GEO6150 SAINT KITTS AND NEVIS
GEO6151 SAINT LUCIA
GEO6153 SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
GEO6155 TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO
GEO6156 TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS
GEO6158 VIRGIN ISLANDS (U.S.)
GEO6200 CENTRAL AMERICA
GEO6217 BELIZE
GEO6226 COSTA RICA
GEO6231 EL SALVADOR
GEO6236 GUATEMALA
GEO6239 HONDURAS
GEO6243 MEXICO
GEO6245 NICARAGUA
GEO6246 PANAMA
GEO6300 NORTH AMERICA
GEO6322 CANADA
GEO6352 SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON
GEO6357 UNITED STATES
GEO6400 SOUTH AMERICA
GEO6414 ARGENTINA
GEO6419 BOLIVIA
GEO6420 BRAZIL
GEO6424 CHILE
GEO6425 COLOMBIA
GEO6430 ECUADOR
GEO6432 FALKLAND ISLANDS
GEO6436 FRENCH GUIANA
GEO6437 GUYANA
GEO6447 PARAGUAY
GEO6448 PERU
GEO6454 SURINAME
GEO6459 URUGUAY
GEO6460 VENEZUELA
GEO7000 ASIA
GEO7100 EAST ASIA
GEO7117 CHINA
GEO7121 KOREA, DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF GEO7124 HONG KONG
GEO7130 JAPAN
GEO7135 MACAU
GEO7138 MONGOLIA
GEO7144 KOREA, REPUBLIC OF GEO7149 TAIWAN
GEO7151 TIBET
GEO7215 ARMENIA
GEO7216 AZERBAIJAN
GEO7225 GEORGIA
GEO7230 KAZAKHSTAN
GEO7231 KYRGYZSTAN
GEO7241 TAJIKISTAN
GEO7248 TURKMENISTAN
GEO7250 UZBEKISTAN
GEO7300 MIDDLE EAST
GEO7312 BAHRAIN
GEO7322 YEMEN, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF
GEO7327 IRAN, ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF
GEO7328 IRAQ
GEO7329 ISRAEL
GEO7331 JORDAN
GEO7332 KUWAIT
GEO7334 LEBANON
GEO7340 OMAN
GEO7343 QATAR
GEO7345 SAUDI ARABIA
GEO7348 SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC
GEO7352 UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
GEO7354 WEST BANK (PALESTINE)
GEO7355 YEMEN
GEO7400 SOUTH ASIA
GEO7411 AFGHANISTAN
GEO7413 BANGLADESH
GEO7414 BHUTAN
GEO7425 INDIA
GEO7437 MALDIVES
GEO7439 NEPAL
GEO7441 PAKISTAN
GEO7447 SRI LANKA
GEO7500 SOUTH EAST ASIA
GEO7515 BRUNEI DARUSSALAM
GEO7516 MYANMAR
GEO7518 CHRISTMAS ISLAND
GEO7519 COCOS (KEELING) ISLANDS
GEO7520 CAMBODIA
GEO7523 EAST TIMOR
GEO7526 INDONESIA
GEO7533 LAO PEOPLE'S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC
GEO7536 MALAYSIA
GEO7542 PHILIPPINES
GEO7546 SINGAPORE
GEO7550 THAILAND
GEO7555 VIETNAM
GEO8000 EUROPE
GEO8011 ALBANIA
GEO8012 ANDORRA
GEO8013 AUSTRIA
GEO8014 BELGIUM
GEO8015 BULGARIA
GEO8016 BELARUS
GEO8018 CYPRUS
GEO8019 CZECHOSLOVAKIA
GEO8020 DENMARK
GEO8021 FAROE ISLAND
GEO8022 FINLAND
GEO8023 FRANCE
GEO8024 GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC
GEO8025 GERMANY
GEO8026 GIBRALTAR
GEO8027 GREECE
GEO8028 GREENLAND
GEO8029 HUNGARY
GEO8030 ICELAND
GEO8031 IRELAND
GEO8033 ITALY
GEO8034 LIECHTENSTEIN
GEO8035 LUXEMBOURG
GEO8036 MALTA
GEO8037 MONACO
GEO8038 NETHERLANDS
GEO8039 NORTHERN IRELAND
GEO8040 NORWAY
GEO8041 POLAND
GEO8042 PORTUGAL
GEO8043 ROMANIA
GEO8044 SAN MARINO
GEO8045 SPAIN
GEO8046 SWEDEN
GEO8047 SWITZERLAND
GEO8048 TURKEY
GEO8049 UKRAINE
GEO8050 USSR
GEO8051 UNITED KINGDOM
GEO8052 VATICAN CITY STATE
GEO8053 YUGOSLAVIA
GEO8055 CROATIA
GEO8056 CZECH REPUBLIC
GEO8057 ESTONIA
GEO8059 LATVIA
GEO8060 LITHUANIA
GEO8062 MOLDOVA, REPUBLIC OF
GEO8064 RUSSIAN FEDERATION
GEO8065 SLOVAKIA
GEO8066 SLOVENIA
GEO8071 BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
GEO8074 MACEDONIA, FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF
GEO8100 EASTERN EUROPE
GEO8200 WESTERN EUROPE
GEO9000 OCEANIA
GEO9011 AMERICAN SAMOA
GEO9012 AUSTRALIA
GEO9013 COOK ISLANDS
GEO9014 FIJI
GEO9015 FRENCH POLYNESIA
GEO9016 GUAM
GEO9017 KIRIBATI
GEO9018 UNITED STATES MINOR OUTLYING ISLANDS
GEO9019 NAURU
GEO9020 NEW CALEDONIA
GEO9021 NEW ZEALAND
GEO9022 NIUE
GEO9023 NORFOLK ISLAND
GEO9024 PAPUA NEW GUINEA
GEO9025 PITCAIRN
GEO9026 SAMOA
GEO9027 SOLOMON ISLANDS GEO9028 TOKELAU
GEO9029 TONGA
GEO9031 TUVALU
GEO9032 VANUATU
GEO9033 WALLIS AND FORTUNA ISLANDS
GEO9071 MARSHALL ISLANDS
GEO9072 MICRONESIA, FEDERATED STATES OF
GEO9073 NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS
GEO9074 PALAU

 

LANGUAGES SPOKEN

ANG000U UNKNOWN
ANG001A AFRIKAANS
DLNG003 DUTCH
ELNG002 ENGLISH
FLNG004 FLEMISH
FLNG005 FRENCH
GLNG006 GERMAN
GLNG007 GREEK
ILNG008 ITALIAN
NLNG009 N.SOTHO
NLNG010 NDEBELE
PLNG011 POLISH
PLNG012 PORTUGUESE
RLNG013 RUSSIAN
SLNG014 S.SOTHO
SLNG015 SEPEDI
SLNG016 SETSWANA
SLNG017 SHANGAAN/TSONGA
SLNG018 SHONA
SLNG019 SWAZI
SLNG020 VENDA
XLNG021 XHOSA
ZLNG022 ZULU
ZLNG023 OTHER (NOT LISTED)

 

PROVINCE OR HOMELAND

APRV000 UNKNOWN
BPRV001 BOPHUTHATSWANA
CPRV002 CAPE
CPRV003 CISKEI
GPRV004 GAZANKULU
KPRV005 KWANDEBELE
KPRV006 KWAZULU
LPRV007 LEBOWA
NPRV008 NATAL
OPRV009 ORANGE FREE STATE
QPRV012 QWAQWA
TPRV010 TRANSKEI
TPRV011 TRANSVAAL
VPRV013 VENDA

 

TYPE OF PERPETRATOR

APRP000 UNKNOWN

APPRP001 SOUTH AFRICAN POLICE
APRP002 SECURITY POLICE/SPECIAL BRANCH
APRP003 INTERNAL STABILITY UNIT
APRP004 MUNICIPAL POLICE
APRP005 KITSKONSTABEL

APRP006 SOUTH AFRICAN MILITARY
APRP007 SOUTH AFRICAN MILITARY (SPECIALISED UNITS)

BPRP001 BLACK LOCAL AUTHORITY OFFICIAL

CPRP001 CHILD/YOUTH ACTIVIST
CPRP002 CHILD SCHOOL ACTIVIST (E.G. SRC MEMBER)
CPRP003 CHILD HELD IN DETENTION (UNDER 17 YEARS OLD)
CPRP004 CIVIC MEMBER
CPRP005 CIVILIAN CROWD OR MOB
CPRP006 CIVILIAN GOVERNMENT OFFICIAL/S

DPRP001 DEMONSTRATOR

EPRP001 END CONSCRIPTION CAMPAIGNER

FPRP001 FUNERAL MOURNER(S)

GPRP001 GUERILLA OR NON-GOVERNMENTAL ARMY

HPRP001 HIT SQUAD/HIT PERSON
HPRP002 HOMELAND MILITARY
HPRP003 HOMELAND POLICE
HPRP004 HOSTEL RESIDENT/S
HPRP005 HUMAN RIGHTS ACTIVIST OR FIGURE

IPRP006 INTELLIGENCE AGENCY

LPRP001 LANDOWNER/S

PPRP001 PARAMILITARY
PPRP002 PERPETRATOR ALIGNED TO POLITICAL PARTY
PPRP003 POLITICAL LEADER OR FIGURE
PPRP004 PRISON OFFICIAL/S OR WARDER/S

RPRP001 RELIGIOUS LEADER OR FIGURE

SPRP001 SELF DEFENCE UNITS (SDUS)
SPRP002 SELF PROTECTION UNITS (SPUS)
SPRP003 STATE WITNESS

SPRP005 PRIVATE SECURITY COMPANY

TPRP001 TOWNSHIP RESIDENT
TPRP002 TRADITIONAL LEADER

VPRP001 VIGILANTE GROUP

XPRP001 OTHER (NOT LISTED)

TYPE OF VICTIM

VICT000 UNKNOWN

VICT001 BYSTANDER

VICT002 ACTUAL, SUSPECTED MEMBER OR SYMPATHISER OF A SPECIFIC POLITICAL PARTY
VICT003 ACTUAL, SUSPECTED MEMBER OR SYMPATHISER OF A SPECIFIC HUMAN RIGHTS ORGANISATION
VICT004 ACTUAL, SUSPECTED MEMBER OR SYMPATHISER OF A SPECIFIC WOMEN'S GROUP
VICT005 ACTUAL, SUSPECTED MEMBER OR SYMPATHISER OF A SPECIFIC UNION
VICT006 ACTUAL, SUSPECTED MEMBER OR SYMPATHISER OF A SPECIFIC RELIGIOUS GROUP
VICT007 ACTUAL, SUSPECTED MEMBER OR SYMPATHISER OF A GOVERNMENT STRUCTURE
VICT008 ACTUAL, SUSPECTED MEMBER OR SYMPATHISER OF A GUERILLA OR NON-GOVERNMENTAL
VICT009 ACTUAL, SUSPECTED MEMBER OR SYMPATHISER OF A PARAMILITARY STRUCTURE
VICT011 ACTUAL, SUSPECTED MEMBER OR SYMPATHISER OF

VICT011 POLITICAL LEADER OR FIGURE
VICT012 RELIGIOUS LEADER OR FIGURE
VICT013 HUMAN RIGHTS ACTIVIST OR FIGURE

VICT014 CHILD/YOUTH ACTIVIST
VICT015 CHILD SCHOOL ACTIVIST (E.G. SRC MEMBER)
VICT016 CHILD HELD IN DETENTION (UNDER 17 YEARS OLD)

VICT017 JOURNALIST
VICT018 ACADEMIC

VICT019 DEMONSTRATOR
VICT020 FUNERAL MOURNER

VICT021 TOWNSHIP RESIDENT
VICT022 HOSTEL RESIDENT
VICT023 BLACK LOCAL AUTHORITY OFFICIAL
VICT024 TRADITIONAL LEADER

VICT025 END CONSCRIPTION CAMPAIGNER

VICT026 PRISONER
VICT027 POLITICAL PRISONER
VICT028 PRISONER OF WAR
VICT029 PRISONER (CRIMINAL)
VICT030 DETAINED PERSON (DETAINEE)

VICT031 STATE WITNESS

VICT032 EXILE
VICT033 REFUGEE
VICT034 BORDER CROSSER
VICT035 INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSON
VICT036 RETURNED EXILE

VICT037 WORKER

VICT038 RELATIVE OF INTENDED VICTIM VICT039 OTHER RELATIONSHIP TO INTENDED VICTIM

VICT040 HOMELAND MILITARY
VICT041 HOMELAND POLICE

VICT042 SOUTH AFRICAN MILITARY (SADF)
VICT043 SOUTH AFRICAN POLICE
VICT044 PRISON OFFICIAL/S OR WARDER/S
VICT045 INTELLIGENCE AGENCY

VICT046 LANDOWNER OR FARMER

VICT047 MEMBER OF SELF DEFENCE UNITS (SDUS)
VICT048 MEMBER OF SELF PROTECTION UNITS (SPUS)

VICT049 OTHER (NOT LISTED)

 

TRC DEFINITION

DTRC002 KILLING
DTRC003 ATTEMPTED KILLING
DTRC004 ABDUCTION
DTRC005 TORTURE/SEVERE ILL-TREATMENT

OCCUPATION

OCCP001 UNKNOWN
OCCP002 POLICE OFFICER
OCCP003 INTERNAL STABILITY UNIT
OCCP004 SECURITY POLICE/SECURITY BRANCH
OCCP005 MUNICIPAL POLICE
OCCP006 KITSKONSTABEL

OCCP007 MERCENARY
OCCP008 INFORMER

OCCP009 STUDENT (UNIVERSITY, COLLEGE OR TECHNIKON)
OCCP010 SCHOLAR (SCHOOL)

OCCP011 ARMY
OCCP012 NAVY
OCCP013 AIR FORCE
OCCP014 GUERRILLA
OCCP015 MILITARY CIVILIAN ADMINISTRATION

OCCP016 PARLIAMENTARIAN
OCCP017 CIVIL SERVANT
OCCP018 TRADITIONAL CHIEF OR HEAD OF VILLAGE
OCCP019 OFFICIAL OF POLITICAL PARTY

OCCP020 PAID WORKER IN ORGANISATION OR NGO
OCCP021 VOLUNTEER WORKER IN ORGANISATION OR NGO
OCCP022 OFFICIAL OF SPECIAL INTEREST ORGANISATION (E.G. LOBBY GROUP)

OCCP023 MANAGER
OCCP024 BUSINESS PROFESSIONAL
OCCP025 CLERK
OCCP026 SALESPERSON

OCCP027 HEALTH PROFESSIONAL (EXCEPT NURSING)
OCCP028 NURSE OR MATRON
OCCP029 TRADITIONAL HEALER

OCCP030 LAWYER
OCCP031 PARALEGAL
OCCP032 JUDGE

OCCP033 TEACHER
OCCP034 ACADEMIC
OCCP035 ARCHIVIST, LIBRARIAN OR INFORMATIONIST
OCCP036 SCIENTIST
OCCP037 TECHNICIAN
OCCP038 MECHANIC
OCCP039 ENGINEER
OCCP040 COMPUTER PROGRAMMER
OCCP041 COMPUTER ASSISTANT OR DATA ENTERER

OCCP042 SOCIAL SCIENTIST
OCCP043 SOCIAL WORKER

OCCP044 JOURNALIST
OCCP045 AUTHOR OR WRITER
OCCP046 ARTIST (PERFORMING OR CREATIVE)
OCCP047 MUSICIAN OR SINGER
OCCP048 PUBLISHER OF BOOKS, NEWSPAPERS OR MAGAZINES
OCCP049 BROADCASTING OR TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROFESSIONAL
OCCP050 PHOTOGRAPHER

OCCP051 RELIGIOUS PROFESSIONAL OR CLERGY
OCCP052 RELIGIOUS OR CHURCH VOLUNTEER WORKER
OCCP053 RELIGIOUS ACTIVIST

OCCP054 POLITICAL ACTIVIST
OCCP055 UNIONIST
OCCP056 COMMUNITY WORKER

OCCP057 FIRE-FIGHTER
OCCP058 POLICEMAN/WOMAN
OCCP059 PRISON OFFICIAL/WARDER
OCCP060 DETECTIVE
OCCP061 SECURITY GUARD
OCCP062 CUSTOM OR BORDER INSPECTOR

OCCP063 FASHION OR OTHER MODEL

OCCP064 SEX WORKER

OCCP065 COMMERCIAL FARMER
OCCP066 SUBSISTENCE FARMER
OCCP067 FARM WORKER

OCCP068 FACTORY WORKER
OCCP069 BUILDING OR CONSTRUCTION WORKER
OCCP070 MINING WORKER
OCCP071 WORKER (GENERAL, NOT LISTED)
OCCP072 TEMPORARY DAY WORKER OR PIECE WORKER
OCCP073 FISHERMAN/WOMAN
OCCP074 CRAFT WORKER

OCCP075 DRIVER, DELIVERY PERSON OR MESSENGER
OCCP076 TRUCK DRIVER
OCCP077 TRAIN DRIVER
OCCP078 TAXI DRIVER
OCCP079 TAXI OWNER

OCCP080 STREET VENDOR OR STALL OWNER

OCCP081 DOMESTIC WORKER
OCCP082 HELPER OR CLEANER (HOTELS, RESTAURANTS OR OFFICES)

OCCP083 WAITER/WAITRESS
OCCP084 GARBAGE COLLECTOR
OCCP085 BUILDING CARETAKER

OCCP086 STUDENT (UNIVERSITY, COLLEGE OR TECHNIKON)
OCCP087 SCHOLAR (SCHOOL)

OCCP088 UNEMPLOYED
OCCP089 UNKNOWN
OCCP090 OTHER (OCCUPATION NOT LISTED)

© Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation

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CSVR is a multi-disciplinary institute that seeks to understand and prevent violence, heal its effects and build sustainable peace at the community, national and regional levels.

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