This concept paper represents the first component of an overall project on the violent nature of crime, which has been commissioned by the Department of Safety and Security acting on behalf of the Justice, Crime Prevention and Security Cluster. The objectives of the concept paper are to determine the landscape of the nature of violence in South Africa. To tackle questions relating to why there is so much violent crime?, the reasons behind the high "acquaintance violence" between people who are known to each other ? as well as why there is such a high degree of violence in many criminal incidents ?. the paper further seeks to make recommendations regarding criminal justice responses to violent crime and violence prevention measures, which are relevant both to the JCPS and social development clusters.